Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Vespidae
Subfamily: Eumeninae
Genus: Ischnogasteroides

Ischnogasteroides is an afrotropical and palearctic genus of potter wasps with a single species, Ischnogasteroides flavus.

Potter wasps are solitary builders of 'flask-shaped' nests of mud, each containing an egg and larval food supply.

Retrieved from : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ischnogasteroides

Anniversary Waltz

The Anniversary Waltz

The Anniversary Waltz is a popular song written by Dave Franklin, the lyrics by Al Dubin. The song was published in 1941. It has been covered by Vera Lynn and Connie Francis.

The title "Anniversary Waltz" is often mistakenly and confusingly used to refer to the entirely unrelated Anniversary Song.

External links

Retrieved from : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Anniversary_Waltz



Country India
State Andhra Pradesh
District(s) Nalgonda
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)

Dameracherla is a Mandal in Nalgonda district, Andhra Pradesh, India.


The villages in Dameracherla mandal includes:

Retrieved from : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dameracherla

Demon (poem)

Demon (poem)

Demon (Russian: Демон) is a poem by Mikhail Lermontov, written in several versions in the years 1829 to 1839. It is considered a masterpiece of European Romantic poetry.

Lermontov began work on the poem when he was just 14 or 15, but completed it only during his Caucasus exile. Lermontov wrote six major variations of the poem, and the final version was not published until 1842, after his death.

The poem is set in Lermontov's beloved Caucasus Mountains. It opens with the eponymous protagonist wandering the earth, hopeless and troubled. He dwells in infinite isolation, his immortality and unlimited power a worthless burden. Then he espies the beautiful Princess Tamara, dancing for her wedding, and in the desert of his soul wells an indescribable emotion.

The Demon, acting as a brutal and powerful tyrant, destroys his rival: at his instigation, robbers come to despoil the wedding and kill Tamara's betrothed. The Demon courts Tamara, and Tamara knows fear, yet in him she sees not a demon nor an angel but a tortured soul. Eventually she yields to his embrace, but his kiss is fatal. And though she is taken to Heaven, the Demon is left again "Alone in all the universe, Abandoned, without love or hope!...".


See also

External links

Further reading


Retrieved from : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Demon_(poem)

John Nevill, 4th Baron Latymer

John Nevill, 4th Baron Latimer

John Neville
Baron Latymer
Spouse(s) Lady Lucy Somerset
Katherine Neville
Dorothy Neville
Lucy Neville
Elizabeth Neville
Noble family House of Neville
Father John Nevill, 3rd Baron Latymer
Mother Dorothy de Vere
Born c.1520
Died 22 April 1577

John Nevill or Neville, 4th Baron Latimer or Latymer (c.1520 – 22 April 1577) was an English nobleman of the House of Neville.

Early life

Born about 1520 (he was 23 when his father died, 2 March 1543), he was the only son of John Nevill, 3rd Baron Latimer and his first wife Dorothy, sister and co-heiress of John de Vere, 14th Earl of Oxford. After the death of his mother, Lord Latimer married secondly, Elizabeth Musgrave, by whom he had no children. After her death in 1530, Latimer married again in 1534 the widowed Catherine Parr.

From the beginning of his father's marriage to Catherine, she tried to be a good step-mother to both children, but John proved to be difficult. There is some indication that Margaret, his sister, was their father's favorite. If that is true, it may explain the turbulence which would follow as John got older. As a "teenager", John proved to be a confident sulking, lying, and over-sensitive boy. Lord Latimer did not name his son as heir to his properties and made sure that his son could not meddle with his inheritance or father's legacy. In Lord Latimer's will, Catherine was named guardian of his daughter and was put in charge of Lord Latimer's affairs which were to be given over to his daughter at the age of her majority.

In January 1537, John, his sister Margaret, and step-mother Catherine, were held hostage at during the uprising of the North. The rebels ransacked the house and sent word to Lord Latimer, who was returning from London, that if he did not return immediately they would kill his family. When Lord Latimer returned to the castle he somehow talked the rebels into releasing his family and leaving, but the aftermath to follow with Lord Latimer would prove to be taxing on the whole family.

Later life

Nevill became Baron Latimer on his father's death in 1543. Although the relationship proved difficult during his youth, Catherine, did not forget Nevill. Catherine stayed close with her former stepchildren. In fact, Catherine made John's wife, Lucy Somerset, a lady-in-waiting when she became queen consort to King Henry VIII.

In 1544, Nevill went to war in France where he took part in the siege of Abbeville. In 1545, he was involved with the siege of Scotland and it was there that he was knighted.

John became an emotionally unstable man later in life. In the summer of 1553, John was sent to Fleet Prison on charges of violence done to a servant. He was arrested for attempted rape and assault in 1557 and in 1563, he killed a man. Of the situation in 1553, Thomas Edwards wrote to the Earl of Rutland describing the violence which had taken place with the servant quoting "too great a villainy for a noble man, my thought." That this public violence occurred after the death of his step-mother, Catherine, might suggest that at least she had some sort of control over Nevill while she was alive.

Marriage and issue

In 1545, Latimer married Lady Lucy Somerset, daughter of Henry Somerset, 2nd Earl of Worcester and Margaret Courtenay, Baroness Herbert. Through her mother, Lucy was a great-granddaughter of King Edward IV and Elizabeth Woodville. Lady Lucy became a lady-in-waiting to her husband's former step-mother, Queen Catherine Parr.

Together they had four daughters:

All of the first marriages above produced childten.

Lord Latimer died without sons in 1577; his four daughters became his joint heiresses. The barony became abeyant until 1913, when its abeyance was terminated in favour of Latimer's distant descendant Francis Money-Coutts, 5th Baron Latymer.

See also

Retrieved from : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Nevill,_4th_Baron_Latimer

Club Saint-Germain

Club Saint-Germain


The Club Saint-Germain was a jazz club located at 13 rue Saint-Benoît in the 6e arrondissement de Paris. The club was opened in 1947 by Boris Vian. Throughout the 1940s, 1950s, and 1960s it staged central figures in the French jazz scene such as Barney Wilen, René Urtreger, Django Reinhardt, and Pierre Michelot. Many Americans on tour including Miles Davis, Art Blakey, and Kenny Dorham also played the club. Along with the Jazzhus Montmartre in Copenhagen, the Club Saint-Germain was a central institution in the movement of exiling American jazz musicians in the 1950s and 1960s. Expatriates such as Bud Powell and Kenny Clarke were frequent performers with other French musicians.

The extinct Club Saint-Germain is now the supper club Bilboquet.

Live Recordings


Gourse, Leslie. "Jazz Liberates Paris". American Heritage Magazine, April 2000. Volume 51, Issue 2.

Retrieved from : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Club_Saint-Germain

Army Type I Heavy Bomber

Fiat BR.20

BR.20 Cicogna
A Fiat BR.20 on the ground just prior to Italy's declaration of war in 1940.
Role Bomber
Manufacturer Fiat
Designed by Celestino Rosatelli
First flight 10 February 1936
Introduced 1936
Retired 1945
Primary users Regia Aeronautica
Number built 530-600

The Fiat BR.20 Cicogna (Italian: "stork") was a low-wing twin-engine medium bomber produced from mid-1930s until the end of World War II by the Turin firm. When it entered service in 1936 it was the first all-metal Italian bomber and it was regarded as one of the most modern medium bomber of the world. It had its baptisme of fire in summer 1937, with Aviazione Legionaria, during the Spanish Civil War, when it formed the backbone of Nationalist bombing operations along with the Heinkel He 111. It was then used successfully by Japanese during the Second Sino-Japanese War. When Italy entered war in 1940, the BR.20 was the standard medium bomber of Regia Aeronautica (Italian Air Force) but it was already showing its age. By 1942, it was mostly used for maritime patrol and operational training for bomber crews. More than 500 were produced before the end of the war.

Design and development

In 1934, Regia Aeronautica requested Italian aviation manufacturers to submit proposals for a new medium bomber; the specifications called for speeds of 330 km/h (205 mph) at 4,500 m (15,000 ft) and 385 km/h (239 mph) at 5,000 m (16,400 ft), a 1,000 km (620 mi) range and 1,200 kg (2,600 lb) bombload. Although Piaggio, Macchi, Breda, Caproni and Fiat offered aircraft that mainly exceeded the speed requirements (but not range), not all exhibited satisfactory flight characteristics or reliability. Accepted among the successful proposals, together with the trimotor Savoia-Marchetti SM.79 and Cant Z.1007, was the BR.20 Cicogna designed by Celestino Rosatelli, thus gaining the prefix BR, (for "Bombardiere Rosatelli").

The BR.20 was designed and developed quickly, with the design being finalised in 1935 and the first prototype (serial number M.M.274) flown at Turin on 10 February 1936. Production orders were quickly placed, initial deliveries being made to the Regia Aeronautica in September 1936.

Technical description

The BR.20 was a twin-engine low-wing monoplane, with a twin tail and a nose separated into cockpit and navigator stations. Its robust main structure was of mixed-construction; with a slab-sided fuselage of welded steel tube structure having duralumin skinning of the forward and centre fuselage, and fabric covering the rear fuselage. The 74 m² (796 ft²) metal-skinned wings had two spars and 50 ribs (also made of duralumin), with fabric-covered control surfaces. The hydraulically actuated main undercarriage elements retracted into the engine's nacelles, and carried 106 x 375 x 406 mm wheels. The takeoff and landing distances were quite short due to the low wing loading, while the thickness of the wing did not compromise the aircraft's speed. The twin tail allowed a good field of fire from the dorsal gun turret.

The engines were two Fiat A.80 RC 41s, rated at 1,000 cv at 4,100 m (13,451 ft), driving three-blade Fiat-Hamilton metal variable-pitch propellers. Six self-sealing fuel tanks in the centre fuselage and inner wings held 3,622 Ls ( US gal) of fuel, with two oil tanks holding 112 L (30 US gal). This gave the fully-loaded bomber, (carrying a 3,600 kg/7,900 lb payload) an endurance of 5½ hours at 350 km/h (220 mph), and 5,000 m (16,400 ft) altitude. Takeoff and landing distances were 350 m (1,150 ft) and 380 m (1,250 ft) respectively. The theoretical ceiling was 7,600 m (24,930 ft).

Crewed by four or five, the BR.20's two pilots sat side-by-side with the engineer/radio operator/gunner behind. The radio operator's equipment included a R.A. 350-I radio-transmitter, A.R.5 receiver and P.3N radio compass. The navigator/bomb-aimer had a station in the nose equipped with bombsights and a vertical camera. Another two or three crewmembers occupied the nose and the mid-fuselage, as radio-operator, navigator and gunners. The radio operator was also the ventral gunner while the last crew member was the dorsal gunner.


The aircraft was fitted with a Breda model H nose turret carrying a single 7.7 mm (.303 in) Breda-SAFAT machine gun, and was initially fitted with a Breda DR dorsal turret carrying one or two 7.7 mm (.303 in) machine guns. This turret was unusual because it was semi-retractable: the gunner's view was from a small cupola, and in case of danger, he could extend the turret. This was later replaced by a Fiat M.I turret carrying a 12.7 mm (.5 in) Breda, then by a Caproni-Lanciani Delta turret mounting a 12.7 mm (.5 in) Scotti machine gun (although this was unreliable), and finally by a more streamlined Breda R, armed with a 12.7 mm (.5 in) Breda; this was a much better system that did not need to be retracted because of the lower induced drag. The aircraft was fitted with a further 7.7 mm (.303 in) machine gun in a ventral clamshell hatch that could be opened when required. The original defensive armament weighed 220 kg (480 lb).

The BR.20's payload was carried entirely in the bomb bay in the following possible combinations: 2 × 800 kg (1,760 lb) bombs as maximum load, 2 × 500 kg (1,100 lb), 4 × 250 kg (550 lb), 4 × 160 kg (350 lb), 12 × 100 kg (220 lb), 12 × 50 kg (110 lb), 12 × 20 kg (40 lb), or 12 × 15 kg (30 lb) bombs. Combinations of different types were also possible, including 1 × 800 kg (1,760 lb) and 6 × 100 kg (220 lb), 1 × 800 kg (1,760 lb) and 6 × 15 or 20 kg (30 or 40 lb), or 2 × 250 kg (550 lb) and 6 × 50 or 100 kg (110 or 220 lb) bombs. The BR.20 could also carry four dispensers, armed with up to 720 × 1 or 2 kg (2 or 4 lb) HE or incendiary bomblets. All the bombs were loaded and released horizontally, improving the accuracy of the launch. No torpedoes were used.

By the time Italy had entered World War II, a new variant, the BR.20M, had been produced and put in service. The BR.20M had a different nose with added glazed sections for the bombardier and a slightly longer fuselage. Also, the weight was increased because part of the fabric was substituted with metal, improving the resistance to flutter while reducing speed from 430 km/h (270 mph) to 410 km/h (260 mph).

Cicogna vs. Sparviero

Despite the BR.20 being the winner of the 1934 new bomber competition, the Savoia Marchetti SM.79 Sparviero, a non-competitor which was developed at practically the same time, gained a reputation that overshadowed the Cicogna, partly because of its performance in air-racing. The performance differences between the two aircraft were minimal: both were rated at about 430 km/h (270 mph), with maximum and typical payloads of 1,600 kg (3,630 lb) and 1,250 kg (2,760 lb) respectively for a range of 800–1,000 km (500-620 mi). Both also had three to four machine guns as defence weapons, but almost totally lacked protective armour.

The reasons for the Sparviero's success lay in its flying characteristics. The Sparviero was a more difficult aircraft to fly with a heavier wingload, but overall its three engines gave more power than the two of the BR.20. The Sparviero, weighing around the same, had a reserve of power and was capable of performing acrobatic manoeuvers, even rolls. Its engines were more reliable than those of the BR.20 and had enough power to return to base even with one shut down. The Sparviero's superior agility enabled it to perform as a torpedo-bomber, while the Cicogna was never considered for that role. Over 1,200 Sparvieros were built, at least twice as many as the Cicogna.

Operational history

When, at the end of 1936, the 13° Stormo Bombardamento Terrestre (in Lonate Pozzolo) was equipped with the "Cicognas" it was probably the most modern bombing unit in the world. Shortly after entering service with the Regia Aeronautica, the aircraft became central to the propaganda campaign lauding Italian engineering. In 1937, two stripped-down BR.20s (designated BR.20A) were built for entry into the prestigious IstresDamascus air race gaining sixth and seventh place when S.M.79s scored the first place, leaving the Fiats far behind. They had a rounded nose similar to civil aircraft, and had all military hardware, such as defensive turrets, removed. The internal fuel capacity was increased to 7,700 L (2,034 US gal), bringing the maximum range to 6,200 km (3,850 mi). In 1939, a modified long-range BR.20 version (designated BR.20L) named Santo Francesco under the command of made a highly publicised nonstop flight from Rome to Addis Ababa at an average speed of 390 km/h (240 mph). It carried 5,000 l (1,321 US gal) of fuel, increasing the range from 3,000 km (1,864 mi) to 4,500 km (2,800 mi).

The main task of the BR.20 was medium-range bombing. It had many features that were very advanced for its time: with a maximum speed of over 400 km/h (250 mph) and a high cruise speed of 320 km/h (200 mph), it was as fast as aircraft like the Tupolev SB light bombers. The range and payload were also very good.


Italy deployed six BR.20s to Spain in June 1937 for use by the Aviazione Legionaria to fight in support of Francisco Franco's Nationalist forces in the Spanish Civil War, with a further seven aircraft sent to Spain in July 1938. They took part in bombing raids over Teruel and at the Battle of the Ebro, proving to be sturdy and accurate bombers. The BR.20s were fast enough to generally avoid interception from the Republican Polikarpov I-16s and I-15s. Losses were very low; nine of the 13 BR.20s sent to Spain survived to the end of the war when they were handed over to the Spanish State to serve with the Ejército del Aire (EdA).

While the Cicognas were successful, just 13 examples were sent to Spain compared to at least 99 SM.79s, which meant that the Sparviero was almost the Italian standard bomber, especially on day missions.


In July 1937, when Japan entered into full scale war with China (the Second Sino-Japanese War), the Japanese Army Air Force found itself short of modern long-range bombers pending delivery of the Mitsubishi Ki-21 "Sally", which was undergoing prototype trials, and so required an interim purchase of aircraft from abroad. Italy was willing to give priority to any Japanese orders over its own requirements, and offered the Caproni Ca.135 and the BR.20. While the Caproni could not meet the Japanese requirements, the BR.20 closely matched the specification, and so an initial order was placed in late 1937 for 72 Br.20s, soon followed by an order for a further 10 aircraft.

Deliveries to Manchuria commenced in February 1938, with the BR.20 (designated the I-Type (Yi-shiki)) replacing the obsolete Mitsubishi Ki-1, equipping two Air Wings (the 12th and 20th Sentai), which were heavily deployed on long-range bombing missions against Chinese cities and supply centres during the winter of 1938–39. The BR.20s were operating with no fighter cover at the extremes of their range and consequently incurred heavy losses from Chinese fighters, as did the early Ki-21s that shared the long-range bombing tasks.

The fabric-covered surfaces were viewed as vulnerable, even if the main structure of this aircraft was noticeably robust. The aircraft had unsatisfactory range and defensive armament, but the first Ki-21s that entered service were not much better, except for their all-metal construction and the potential for further development when better engines became available (both types initially used two 746 kW/1,000 hp engines).

The 12th Sentai was redeployed to the Mongolian-Manchurian border to fight in the Battle of Khalkhin Gol, but when this war ended, in September 1939, the BR.20s were progressively withdrawn and replaced by the Ki-21. Despite having been phased out from operational service, the BR.20 was allocated the Allied code name "Ruth".

World War II

Following Nazi Germany's invasion of France in April 1940, and with German forces pushing deep into France, Italy declared war on France and the United Kingdom on 10 June 1940. At this time, only four wings operated BR.20s compared to the 14 wings equipped with SM.79s, with 172 Cicognas being in service with the Regia Aeronautica including those not yet delivered to operational squadrons. The units equipped with the Cicogna were the 7°, 13°, 18° and 43° Stormo (Wing), all based in Northern Italy.


The aircraft of the 7°, 13° and 43° Stormo fought in the brief campaign against France. On the night of 12 June 1940, eight bombers from 13° attacked Toulon dockyard. The next day, 10 Fiat BR.20s dropped bombs on Hyères and Fayence airfields; two aircraft (commanded by Catalano and Sammartano) were shot down and one was badly damaged. The same day, 28 BR.20s from 43° and 7° Stormo bombed Toulon again, with no losses. On 15 June, one BR.20M (Matricola Militare MM. 21837) of the newly formed 172a Squadriglia Ricognizione Strategica Terrestre based on Bresso airfield, was shot down on Provence by Dewoitine D.520s, the French air defences in the south having not been defeated by the German attack in the north. Small scale air raids continued until the French surrender, with many BR.20s also used in support for the Army - bombing Briançon, Traversette and Cap San Martin fortresses on the Alps - and as reconnaissance aircraft. At the end of the French campaign, five BR.20s had been lost and 19 airmen killed.

Corpo Aereo Italiano

On 10 September 1940, was formed the Corpo Aereo Italiano, with 13° and 43° Stormi equipped with 80 brand new BR.20Ms, to fight in the Battle of Britain. During the ferry operation from Italy to their bases in Belgium, five aircraft crash-landed for technical failures and a further 17 were forced to land en route due to poor visibility. On the night of 24 October, the 13° and 43° took off for their first bombing mission, on Harwich, with eight BR.20s each. A plane crashed taking off, because of engine failure, while two more got lost on their return, failing to find their airfield and their crews bailing out. On 29 October, 15 aircraft of 43° Stormo bombed Ramsgate, in daylight, with no loss. In a famous battle on 11 November, a formation of 10 BR.20s from 43° Stormo, escorted by Fiat CR.42 biplane fighters – but not by the Fiat G.50s - on a daylight raid on Harwich, was intercepted by Royal Air Force Hurricanes. Despite the escort, three bombers were downed (together with three CR.42s) and three more damaged, with no loss to the Hurricanes. Winston Churchill commented on this raid, which occurred on the same day as the Fleet Air Arm's attack on Taranto: "They might have found better employment defending their Fleet at Taranto."

The BR.20s of the Corpo Aereo Italiano still bombed Ipswich and Harwich during the nights of 5, 17, 20, 29 November, three times in December and two at the beginning of January, with no loss. On 10 January 1941, the 43° Stormo flew back to Italy, followed by the 13° before the end of the month. During 12 days of bombing missions, the “Cicognas” dropped 54,320 kg; three aircraft were lost to enemy fire, 17 more for other reasons and 15 airmen were killed. Still, almost 200 modern aircraft were involved, weakening the Regia Aeronautica's presence in the Mediterranean.

North Africa

On 27 February 1941, 14 Cicogne of 98° Gruppo, 43° Stormo, that had been in service with Corpo Aereo Italiano in Belgium, led by commander De Wittembeschi, left Italy bound for Tripolitania, in Libya. On 11 March they landed on Castel Benito airfield. Subsequently they were allocated to Bir Dufan base, where they replaced the Savoia-Marchetti SM.81s. The BR.20s were tasked to bomb the British forces, in particular the key port of Tobruk. North Africa was never a primary theatre for the Cicogna, but 13 Stormo (Wing) was sent there to continue the night attacks against the British in July 1941–April 1942. One of the last sortie occurred on 7 March 1942, when two Fiats machine-gunned some Arabians servicing with British tropps, near Oberdan village, subsequently 11° and 43° Gruppi started withdrawal to Italy. On 12 April the whole Stormo was back to Reggio Emilia base: during the African campaign, with the type suffering many mechanical troubles because of the desert sand, losses amounted to 15 Cicogne.

The last use over Africa was when 55° Gruppo aircraft contested Operation Torch.


BR.20s were used in the Malta campaign in 1941, 1942 and 1943. On 7 May 1941, 19° Gruppo from 43° Stormo, left Lonate Pozzolo with eight aircraft and arrived in Gerbini, Sicily. On 22 May the BR.20s started to carry out raids against the besieged island almost nightly. The first loss occurred on 8 of June. On 9 June, the 31° Gruppo arrived from Aviano, with 18 bombers, but in less than three months the units lost 12 BR.20s. In October the 37° Stormo arrived in Sicily with the 116° Gruppo, based on Fontanarossa airfield, and the 55° Gruppo, in Gerbini. But in the first month those units too lost nine aircraft, due to accidents or enemy fire.

Attrition remained high, and BR.20 units continued to be rotated to bases on Sicily to continue the offensive against Malta though 1941 and 1942.

On 1 May 1942, the 88° Gruppo landed in Castelvetrano with 17 new machines (one crash landed on the Appennini Mountains). The units started operational service on 8 May, dropping 4AR mines. Before the end of August, five aircraft were lost and that same month the BR.20s left Sicily. In the 16 months of their Malta campaign, 41 “Cicognas” were shot down or lost through accidents. The Fiat bombers returned for a short time in 1943 with attacks on Malta.


Several BR.20s were sent to Russia in August 1942, to perform long-range reconnaissance and bombing sortie in support of CSIR, Italian Army on Eastern Front. On 3 August 1941, two BR-20s arrived in Ukraina and were assigned to 38a Squadriglia osservazione aerea (reconnaissance squadron) of 71° Gruppo. Three days later they had their baptism of fire, bombing enemy troops at Werch Mamor, along Don river. More BR.20s arrived on 5 September from 43° Stormo. Three of them were assigned to 116a Squadriglia. They usually flew alone bombing sorties, carrying 36 small-baskets of incendiary bombes to drop on enemy troops in urban areas. On 5 October, three and a Yakovlev Yak-1 attacked the BR.20 flown by Capitano Emilio d’Emilei. The Fiat crew claimed two Soviet fighters and the bomber managed to land back to airfield,in (Кантемировка), in Voronež Oblast', but the pilot was wounded. The BR.20s were withdrawn from eastern Front in spring 1943, at first to Odessa and, subsequently, to Italy, on 13 April.

Other fronts

During the course of the war, BR.20s were used in Albania and Greece as well. They were also used extensively in Yugoslavia against Josip Broz Tito's partisans. Other BR.20s were used to drop food and other material to the Italian Army, often trapped in the Balkans, faced with Yugoslavian resistance.

After the first year of war, the limitations of this type were evident. It was highly vulnerable to enemy attacks, as Japanese experience had shown in 1938, and the aircraft was replaced by the Cant Z.1007 and Savoia-Marchetti SM.84 in almost all operational units that had employed the BR.20.

By 1943, when the Italian armistice was signed, many had been relegated to training, although 81 were with operational units, mostly in the Balkans and Italy; also later serving on the Eastern Front.

Italy invaded Greece in October 1940, and deployed increasing numbers of BR.20s in attacks on Greece from bases in Italy and Albania in support of the Italian Army while it was being driven back into Albania. They were involved in heavy battles with the Greeks and British, often facing fierce RAF opposition, as happened on 27 February 1941, when four BR.20s were lost or heavily damaged. This force was redeployed against Yugoslavia during the more successful German and Italian invasion in April 1941, using a strong detachment (131 aircraft) in four groups.

While the main front line task remained that of night bombing, especially against Malta, other roles included reconnaissance and the escort of convoys in the Mediterranean. For escort duties, aircraft were fitted with bombs and possibly depth charges, but with no other special equipment. They were used in this role from 1941, with 37° Wing (Lecce), 13° Wing (end of 1942), 116°, 32 Group (Iesi, from 1943), and 98° (based in Libya) from 1941. One of the 55° aircraft was lost in August 1941 against British torpedo bombers, while between 9 August–11 September 1941, 98° escorted 172 ships from Italy to Libya. In almost all these units, the Cicogna was operated together with other aircraft, such as the Caproni Ca.314. This escort task was quite effective, at least psychologically, although the Cicogna was hampered by the lack of special equipment and, consequently, no submarines were sunk.

At the time of the September 1943 Armistice between Italy and the Allies, 67 BR.20s were operational with front line operational units, mainly being used on anti-partisan operations, although most aircraft had been relegated to the training role. During the final years of the war, some surviving aircraft remained in use as trainers and transports. A small number were used by the RSI after the Armistice, with only one retained by the Italian Co-Belligerent Air Force, which used it for communications duties. The last BR.20 was retired on 7 June 1946 and none survive today.

Final developments

BR.20 was a good overall design, but it soon became obsolete, and the lack of improved versions condemned it to be only a second-line machine, underpowered and lacking in defensive firepower.

The final production variant was the BR.20bis which was a complete redesign. It had a fully-glazed nose, a retractable tail wheel, and more streamlined fuselage, pointed fins, although the main change was increased engine power from two 932 kW (1,250 hp) Fiat A.82 RC 42 radial engines and improved and heavier armament. The nose held a simple machine gun position rather than the turret used on earlier aircraft and two waist blisters were fitted over the wing trailing edge while the dorsal turret was a Breda Type V instead of the earlier Caproni Lanciani type. While this was considered to be an improvement over the previous versions, planned production was limited, as the Regia Aeronautica had placed large orders for the CRDA CANT Z.1018. Originally, 98 were ordered, but only 15 BR.20bis were built from March to July 1943, with heavy Allied bombing of Fiat's Turin factory preventing further production. There is no evidence that they were used operationally.

Experimental versions included the BR.20C, a gunship with a 37 mm (1.46 in) cannon in the nose and another aircraft was modified with a tricycle undercarriage. Another was modified to guide radio-commanded unmanned aircraft filled with explosives, but this was never used in combat.

Including those sold to Japan, at least 233 standard BR.20s were made, along with 264–279 BR.20Ms being built from February 1940.


Initial production model, 233 built.
De-militarised conversion of two BR.20s for air racing.
Long ranged civil version, one built.
Improved bomber version with lengthened nose, 264 produced.
Single aircraft converted by Agusta fitted with 37 mm (1.46 in) cannon in revised nose.



Specifications (Fiat Br.20M)

Data from The Encyclopedia of Weapons of World War II

General characteristics



See also


  • Andersson, Lennart.A History of Chinese Aviation: Encyclopedia of Aircraft and Aviation in China until 1949. AHS of ROC: Taipei, Taiwan, 2008. ISBN 978-957-28533-3-7.
  • Bignozzi, Giorgio. Aerei d'Italia (dal 1923 al 1972). Edizioni "E.C.A. 2000" Milano.
  • De Marchi, Italo. Fiat BR.20 cicogna. Modena, Editore S.T.E.M. Mucchi, 1976.
  • Donald, David, ed. The Encyclopedia of World Aircraft. Aerospace Publishing. 1997. ISBN 1-85605-375-X.
  • Ethell, L. Jeffrey. Aircraft of World War II. Glasgow, HarperCollins Publishers, 1995. ISBN 0-00-470849-0.
  • Green, William and Swanborough, Gordon, eds. "Fiat BR.20... Stork à la mode". Air International Volume 22, No. 6, June 1982, pp. 290–294, 307–312. ISSN 0306-5634.
  • Gunston, Bill. Aerei della Seconda Guerra Mondiale. Milano, Alberto Peruzzo Editore, 1984.
  • "Il CAI sul Mare del Nord" (in Italian). RID magazine October 1990.
  • Lembo, Daniele. "Fiat BR.20 una Cicogna per la Regia" (in Italian). Aerei nella Storia n. 29, April–May 2003, West-ward edictions.
  • Matricardi, Paolo. Aerei Mililtari: Bombardieri e da Trasporto 2.(in Italian) Milano, Electa Mondadori, 2006.
  • Massiniello, Giorgio. "Bombe sull'Inghilterra" (in Italian). Storia Militare magazine n.1/2005.
  • Mondey, David. The Hamlyn Concise Guide to Axis Aircraft of World War II. London: Bounty Books, 2006. ISBN 0-753714-60-4.
  • Sgarlato, Nico. "Il Disastro del CAI" (in Italian). Aerei nella Storia magazine, June 2007.
  • Taylor, M.J.H. (ed). Jane's Encyclopedia of Aviation. London: Jane's, 1980. ISBN 1-85170-324-1.

External links

Retrieved from : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fiat_BR.20


Boeing KC-46

The KC-46A will be externally similar to this Italian Air Force KC-767A
Role Air-to-air tanker
Manufacturer Boeing
Primary user United States Air Force
Developed from Boeing KC-767

The Boeing KC-46 is a military aerial refueling and strategic transport aircraft developed from the Boeing 767. In February 2011, the tanker was selected by United States Air Force as the winner in the KC-X tanker competition to replace older KC-135s.



The U.S. Air Force (USAF) ran a procurement program to replace around 100 of its oldest KC-135E Stratotankers, and selected Boeing's KC-767. The Boeing tanker received the KC-767A designation from the DoD in 2002 and appearing in the 2004 edition of DoD Model Designation report. The Air Force decided to lease 100 KC-767 tankers from Boeing.

Despite several nations leasing military aircraft, there was criticism. U.S. Senator John McCain and others criticized the draft leasing agreement as being wasteful and problematic. In response to the protests, the Air Force struck a compromise in November 2003, whereby it would purchase 80 KC-767 aircraft and lease 20 more.

Then in December 2003, the Pentagon announced the project was to be frozen while an investigation of allegations of corruption by one of its former procurement staffers.

USAF KC-X Program

In 2006 the USAF released a request for proposal (RFP) for a new tanker program, KC-X, to be selected by 2007. Boeing had also announced it may enter an even higher capability tanker based on the Boeing 777, named the KC-777 Strategic Tanker. Airbus partnered with Northrop Grumman to offer the Airbus A330 MRTT, the tanker version of the A330, which was being marketed to the USAF under the company name, KC-30.

In late January 2007 the USAF issued the KC-X Aerial Refueling Aircraft Request for Proposal. The RFP called for 179 (4 system development and demonstration and 175 production) tankers, in a contract worth an estimated US$40 billion. However, Northrop and EADS expressed their displeasure at how the RFP was structured and threatened to withdraw, leaving only Boeing to offer an aircraft.

On 12 February 2007, Boeing announced it was offering the KC-767 Advanced Tanker for the KC-X Tanker competition. Boeing stated that for KC-X's requirements, the KC-767 was a better fit than the KC-777. On 11 April 2007, Boeing submitted its KC-767 tanker proposal to U.S. Air Force. The KC-767 Advanced Tanker offered for this KC-X round was based on the in-development 767-200LRF (Long Range Freighter), rather than the -200ER that Italian and Japanese KC-767 aircraft are based, differing by combining the -200ER fuselage, -300F wing, gear, cargo door and floor, -400ER digital flightdeck and flaps, uprated engines, and "sixth-generation" fly-by-wire boom. The KC-767 has manual flight controls with an unrestricted flight envelope.

Boeing submitted the final version of its proposal on 3 January 2008. On 29 February 2008, the DoD chose the Northrop Grumman/EADS KC-30, now officially designated the KC-45A, over the KC-767. Boeing submitted a protest to the United States Government Accountability Office on 11 March 2008 and began waging a public relations campaign in support of their protest. On 18 June, following a series of admissions by the Air Force on the flaws in the bidding process, the GAO upheld Boeing's protest and recommended the contract be rebid. On 9 July 2008, Defense Secretary Robert Gates announced that the Air Force would reopen bidding on the tanker contract. Secretary Gates put the contract for the KC-45 into an "expedited recompetition" with Defense Undersecretary John Young in charge of the selection process instead of the Air Force. A draft of the revised RFP was provided to the contractors on 6 August 2008 for comments. By mid-August the revised RFP was to be finalized. However, on 10 September 2008, the U.S. Defense Department canceled the KC-X solicitation.

On 24 September 2009, the USAF began the first steps in the new round of bids, with a clearer set of criteria, including reducing the number of requirements from 800 to 373 in an attempt to simplify the process and allow a more objective decision to be made. On 4 March 2010, Boeing announced it will bid the KC-767 tanker for the new KC-X round. EADS announced in April 2010 it would submit a tanker bid without Northrop Grumman as a U.S. partner. Boeing submitted its KC-767 "NewGen Tanker" bid on 9 July 2010. The company submitted a revised bid on 10 February 2011.

On 24 February 2011, the Air Force announced the selection of Boeing's KC-767. The aircraft will receive the designation KC-46A. Boeing was also awarded a development contract for the tanker. The contract calls for Boeing to complete, and deliver 18 initial operational KC-46 tankers by 2017. Boeing's "NewGen Tanker" is based on the 767-200 with an improved version of the KC-10 refueling boom, and cockpit displays from the 787.




United States


Specifications for KC-767 Advanced Tanker (767-200LRF based).

Data from KC-767A, KC-767 Advanced Boeing 767-200ER specifications

General characteristics


See also

Related development

Comparable aircraft


External links

Retrieved from : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boeing_KC-46

Junk E.P.

Junk E.P.

Junk E.P.
EP by Phunk Junkeez
Released January 1, 1999
Recorded ???
Genre Trip-Hop
Rap Rock
Rap Metal
Length ???
Phunk Junkeez chronology
Fear of a Wack Planet
Junk E.P.
Sex, Drugs and Rap N' Roll

Junk E.P. is the only e.p. released by the trip-hop/rap rock group Phunk Junkeez. The album was released January 1, 1999 on .

Track Listing

External Links

Retrieved from : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Junk_E.P.

Jovany Barreto

American Idol (season 10)

American Idol
Season 10
Broadcast from January 19, 2011
Judges Randy Jackson
Jennifer Lopez
Steven Tyler
Host(s) Ryan Seacrest
Broadcaster Fox
Finals venue Nokia Theatre Los Angeles

The tenth season of American Idol premiered on January 19, 2011, on Fox. The show underwent a number of changes from season nine, which include the reduction of the judging panel to its original number of just three judges (two of whom are new), a returning executive producer, a new music director as well as multiple format changes. For the first time, Idol will air on Wednesdays and Thursdays as opposed to the previous schedule of Tuesdays and Wednesdays.

Nigel Lythgoe returned to the senior production team as executive producer for the series. American singer Steven Tyler and American singer-actress Jennifer Lopez joined the judging panel as replacements for Simon Cowell, Ellen DeGeneres, and Kara DioGuardi who all left at the end of season nine. Ray Chew replaced Rickey Minor as the show's musical director and leader of the Idol's live band.

Interscope Records, which is part of Universal Music Group, replaced Sony Music Entertainment as Idol's official partner record label. Interscope's Chairman Jimmy Iovine, a songwriter and producer, was made in-house mentor to work with the contestants on a weekly basis. He is supported by associated producers: Rodney Jerkins, Alex da Kid, Tricky Stewart, Don Was and Timbaland who all help contestants tailor their song choices to their chosen genre of performance, as well as work in producing arrangements for the contestants and offering original material to be performed.

This is the first season in which 15 year-olds may audition. Other changes include online voting, extra rounds such as the Las Vegas and a final solo round, and a return of the judges' wild card choice. More contestants made it to Hollywood in season 10 than in previous seasons. This is also the first season where 11 contestants will go on the summer tour instead of 10.

Changes for season ten

Simon Cowell, a judge from the start of the show, announced on January 11, 2010, that he would not be returning as a judge for this season in order to focus on launching the American version of his hit British singing competition The X Factor. Ellen DeGeneres officially announced her departure on July 29, 2010, after judging for only one season, because she felt the show was not the "right fit" for her. Kara DioGuardi then announced on September 3, 2010, that she would also not return this season due to her pursuing new projects. On September 22, 2010, it was announced that Jennifer Lopez and Steven Tyler would join the judging panel.

There were a number of other major changes in season ten, from the judges to the format of the show itself. Nigel Lythgoe returned as the executive producer, and Ray Chew has been hired as the show's new musical director, replacing Rickey Minor, who left the show along with vocal coach Dorian Holley to become the musical director of The Tonight Show with Jay Leno. Peisha McPhee, mother of season 5's runner-up Katharine McPhee, joined as one of the vocal coaches. In this season, online voting was also offered for the first time for fans with Facebook account and up to 50 votes may be cast.

New rounds and challenges

"Theme weeks will also get a makeover. We’re not going to ask a country singer to sing an R&B song, or an R&B singer to do Led Zeppelin, ... If the theme is ’80s or Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, every song will be customized to that contestant... What's most important, is that the song suit the finalist's voice."

– Ron Fair

Then beginning in November 2010, returning producer, Nigel Lythgoe, revealed that there would be other significant format changes. New challenges include "contests [having] to make the best music video, to promote themselves, and to work with a band and dancers for an awards show-style performance." Entertainment Weekly reported that the challenges would replace the traditional semi-finals portion of the competition meaning that finalists would go on to compete in the top-twelve for the live shows. However it was later revealed that the music video challenge was only ever an idea but there were no plans to make it part of season ten of Idol. The Hollywood round would narrow the contestants down to sixty potential finalists. Those who made the final sixty were then taken to Las Vegas where they were asked to sing songs from The Beatles. It was originally planned that 20 contestants would be left by the end of this phase of competition, and these remaining contestants would perform in two groups of ten in a semi-final sudden death round to find via public votes the ten finalists – five girls and five boys – for the live shows in the finals. Nigel Lythgoe however later revealed that the Top 20 would be extended to a Top 24. Additionally, the judges were given wild card picks.

Partnership with Universal Music

At the end of season nine, Sony Music Entertainment's affiliation to Idol also ended. The partnership was superseded by a new deal with Universal Music Group, meaning that the winner will now be signed to Interscope Records. Interscope's sister labels, A&M Records and Geffen Records, will also be involved in promoting and distributing the albums of the show's finalists. Chairman of the Interscope-Geffen-A&M label group, Jimmy Iovine, will work directly with contestants as the in-house mentor. Additionally, Billboard revealed that a team of Universal Music-associated producers and songwriters, such as Rodney "Darkchild" Jerkins, Timbaland and Alex da Kid, will work alongside the contestants. It was reported that the new creative team would allow contestants to take on original material and arrangements, not just cover versions, when singing live. The Hollywood Reporter also indicated that other changes for season ten will include online voting and finalists releasing music as the season progresses, rather than waiting for the summer to record an album. Despite previous reports that Idol producers had axed the weekly music theme, in-house mentor Fair, confirmed that the themes would remain.

Regional auditions

The judges sit in this order from left to right: Steven Tyler, Jennifer Lopez, Randy Jackson

This is the first season in which the contestant age minimum was reduced to 15 years old. The maximum age however still remains 28.

Auditions were held in the following cities:

Note 1: Actual number not announced on the show but this number is based on the number of names listed on americanidol.com website and may not be the actual total.

In addition to the above cities, for the first time contestants were allowed to audition online via Myspace / Facebook / Twitter. To audition, they were required to upload a 40-second audition clip of them singing a pre-approved song. The internet auditioners were called back to the Los Angeles auditions to audition in front of the judges.

Hollywood week

The Hollywood week phase of the competition was held in the Pasadena Civic Center. There were a record-number 327 contestants in the first round, which lasted over two days, exceeding season 2's record of 234. The contestants emerged in groups of ten and each performed individually a cappella. After the whole group had finished their performances, those who failed were cut immediately. 168 advanced to the next round, where the contestants performed in groups; out of the 168, only 100 advanced to the next round. In the next round, the contestants performed solo, accompanied by a band or an instrument. The contestants were then separated into four rooms, with two of the four rooms containing eliminated contestants and the other two containing contestants who made it into the next round. Only 61 of the 100 remaining advanced.

This year, due to the large number of contestants, two more rounds were added. The 61 remaining contestants proceeded to Las Vegas where they performed songs from The Beatles as duos and trios in the Love theatre at The Mirage for this newly added 'Las Vegas' round. After that, 40 advanced to the final "Sing For Your Life" round back in Los Angeles. In that round, each contestant performed a song of their own choosing at Howard Hughes' Spruce Goose aircraft hangar. The Top 24 were then selected from the remaining 40 for the semifinals. This episode was notable for the emotional breakdown of judge Jennifer Lopez after telling contestant Chris Medina that he had been eliminated.


The twenty-four semi-finalists were revealed in two stages. The first five were revealed on February 23, 2011, and the remaining 19 were revealed on the following night's episode. The following are semi-finalists who failed to reach the finals.

Contestant Age Date of Birth Hometown Audition Location
Julie Zorrilla 20 November 3, 1990 Bogotá, Colombia San Francisco, California
Kendra Chantelle 22 September 27, 1988 Loudon, Tennessee Nashville, Tennessee
Lauren Turner 24 May 8, 1986 Covington, Louisiana New Orleans
Rachel Zevita 23 October 20, 1987 New York City Jersey City, New Jersey
Ta-Tynisa Wilson 20 June 19, 1990 Aurora, Illinois Milwaukee, Wisconsin
Contestant Age Date of Birth Hometown Audition Location
Brett Loewenstern 17 December 13, 1993 Boca Raton, Florida New Orleans, Louisiana
Clint Jun Gamboa 26 June 9, 1984 Long Beach, California San Francisco, California
Jordan Dorsey 21 April 23, 1989 Laplace, Louisiana New Orleans, Louisiana
Jovany Barreto 23 September 3, 1987 Harvey, Louisiana New Orleans, Louisiana
Robbie Rosen 17 December 27, 1993 Merrick, New York Jersey City, New Jersey
Tim Halperin 23 May 27, 1987 Fort Worth, Texas Los Angeles, California


The semifinal round began on Tuesday, March 1, 2011. This year, the producers use a new format. Below are the two semi-final groups (males and females) with contestants listed in their performance order. The top five males and top five females, along with the three wild card choices by the judges advanced to the finals. There were twenty-four semifinalists, twelve females and males. The males started the semifinal round, and the females continued on following night's episode, the contestants perform songs of their choice (there was no particular theme).




Still Participating:

  • Haley Reinhart (born September 9, 1990) is from Wheeling, Illinois and 20 years old during the show. Auditioned in Milwaukee, Wisconsin with The Beatles' "Oh! Darling". She originally auditioned for the previous season, but did not make it to Hollywood during that season. She performed Corinne Bailey Rae's "Breathless", and Billie Holiday's "God Bless the Child" in the Hollywood rounds, but she forgot her words in the group round.



This is the first season in which there are 12 weeks of the finals and the 2nd season to have 13 finalists, instead of 11 as in the previous seasons, with one of the 13 finalists eliminated each week. In Season 8 there were 13 finalists but 2 were eliminated in the first week, the final rounds thereby only lasted 11 weeks. This is the third season in which a Wild Card contestant, Ashthon Jones, was eliminated in the first round of the finals, with the first two seasons being season three (Leah LaBelle) and season eight (Jasmine Murray). The top 13 performance show was pre-recorded, but the subsequent performance shows of the finals are broadcast live. American Idol (season 7) winner David Cook recorded the Simple Minds song "Don't You (Forget About Me)" as the send-off song played when a contestant is eliminated.

Top 13 - Their Personal Idols

Top 12 - Year They Were Born

Top 11 (First Week) - Motown

Top 11 (Second Week) - Elton John

Elimination chart

Top 24 Wild Card Top 13 Winner
Safe Safe First Safe Last Eliminated Wild Card Choice Judges' Save

Results show performances

Week Performer(s) Title Hot 100 reaction Digital reaction Performance type
Top 24 Jennifer Lopez ft. Pitbull "On the Floor" 5 (+4) New Peak 219,000, (+29%) music video premiere
Top 13 Adam Lambert "Aftermath" failed to chart live performance
Diddy Dirty-Money and Skylar Grey "Coming Home" 11 (+11) New Peak TBA live performance
Top 12 Lee DeWyze "Beautiful Like You" failed to chart 12,000 (+8,068%) live performance
The Black Eyed Peas "Just Can't Get Enough" 5 (+17) New Peak 198,000, (+143%) pre-recorded performance
Top 11
Week 1
Stevie Wonder "Signed, Sealed, and Delivered" N/A N/A live performance
Jennifer Hudson "Where You At" TBA TBA live performance
Sugarland "Stuck Like Glue" TBA TBA pre-recorded performance
Top 11
Week 2
Top 8 Kelly Clarkson and Jason Aldean "Don't You Wanna Stay" TBA TBA TBA
Top 7 David Cook TBA TBA TBA TBA
Finale Lady Gaga "Judas"/"Born This Way" TBA TBA live performance

Post-Idol alumni

Eliminated contestant Chris Medina released a single called "What Are Words" on February 25, 2011, the day after his elimination. The song is about his fiance who suffered a brain injury as the result of a car wreck. The song debuted at #22 on the Heatseekers Songs chart, and then reached #83 on the Billboard Hot 100. It has since sold 61,000 copies He performed the ballad on The Tonight Show with Jay Leno on February 28, 2011 and on Good Morning America on March 4, 2011.

On March 3, 2011, it was announced that eliminated contestant Carson Higgins had joined the cast of the Los Angeles production of the Paul Storiale play The Columbine Project. The play is inspired by the tragic events at Columbine High School in Colorado in 1999, and will be performed at the Avery Schreiber Theatre in North Hollywood beginning April 22, 2011.

U.S. Nielsen ratings


External links

Retrieved from : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_Idol_(season_10)